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Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are considered to be both surgical and medical specialists.

Ophthalmology includes sub-specialities which deal either with certain diseases or diseases of certain parts of the eye. Some of them are:

Anterior segment surgery
Retinal ophthalmology, which emphasizes such things as laser treatment of the retina and actual retinal surgery.
Cataracts — not usually considered a subspecialty per se, since most general ophthalmologists perform cataract surgery
Cornea, ocular surface, and external disease
Medical retina, deals with treatment of retinal problems through non-surgical means.
Ocular oncology
Oculoplastics & Orbit surgery
Ophthalmic pathology
Pediatric ophthalmology/Strabismus (mis-alignment of the eyes)
Refractive surgery
Veterinary Formal specialty training programs in veterinary ophthalmology now exist in some countries.

Vitreo-retinal surgery, deals with surgical management of retinal and posterior segment diseases and disorders. Medical retina and vitreo-retinal surgery sometimes together called posterior segment subspecialisation.


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